International BIM Object Standard

Foreword

In September 2014, the NBS published the NBS BIM Object Standard to create a benchmark for manufactures and designers on the format and properties of BIM objects laying down the foundations for robust, consistent information. That standard, which involved engagement with industry professionals as well as leading software vendors Autodesk, Bentley, Graphisoft, Nemetschek and buildingSMART UK, is freely available to the construction industry.

Working in partnership, NBS, NATSPEC and Masterspec have developed this International BIM Object standard, using the NBS BIM Object Standard as the basis. This International standard has been developed for use by all construction professionals – from specifiers to manufacturers and BIM content developers to assist in the creation of BIM objects. Nation-specific annexes, where produced, take into consideration local regional differences in regulations, standards and practices.

About NBS

NBS is the trusted source of specification, product information, BIM and practice management solutions for the UK construction industry. Its specification system is already recognised as the UK’s preferred standard.

NBS products and services are at the heart of coordinating information about an asset. NBS Create is the latest specification system which has been developed for BIM. The award-winning NBS National BIM Library is the primary source of free-to-use BIM content in the UK, and is also now used internationally.

NBS is at the very forefront of BIM development, and its experts hold key positions in groups and organisations that are shaping the UK BIM landscape and starting to attract interest on a global stage.

NBS is a member of the BIM Technologies Alliance, which supports the Government’s Construction Strategy BIM Task Group, and is also represented on key groups such as the BSI B/555 BIM standards committee, CPIc, ICIS and BuildingSMART. It also publishes the internationally respected NBS National BIM Report.

A wealth of free BIM information can be found on thenbs.com/bim

About NATSPEC

NATSPEC is an Australian not-for-profit organisation owned by government and industry with the objective of improving the construction quality and productivity of the built environment through leadership of information.

NATSPEC believes that digital information, including 3-D Modelling and Building Information Modelling, will provide improved methods of design, construction and communication for the industry. Further, NATSPEC supports open global systems. This will result in improved efficiency and quality.

NATSPEC’s primary focus is on the “i” (information) in BIM and how it is linked to digital models. NATSPEC’s areas of interest include how specification information can be best integrated with BIM and the development of BIM guidelines and standards beneficial to the construction industry.

For the National BIM Guide and other information visit the NATSPEC website at www.natspec.com.au and click on the BIM logo.

About Masterspec New Zealand

Masterspec (Construction Information Ltd) is industry-owned by the New Zealand Institute of Architects and the Registered Master Builders' Association. Masterspec is New Zealand's market leader in providing specification systems and related information resources to the construction industry.

Masterspec NZ is a strong advocate for the use of technology and connectivity to improve productivity and quality in the construction sector. With this objective in mind, Masterspec NZ is actively involved in helping BIM grow in New Zealand and developing this standard for New Zealand is an important step in this.  Find out more at www.masterspec.co.nz.

Introduction

There are many definitions of Building Information Modelling (BIM) but it is simply the means by which everyone can understand a built asset through the use of a digital model. Modelling a built asset in digital form enables those who interact with the asset to optimise their actions, resulting in a greater whole life value for the asset.

Through BIM, the construction industry is undergoing its very own digital revolution. BIM is a way of working; it is information modelling and information management in a team environment, all team members should be working to the same standards as one another. BIM creates value from the combined efforts of people, policy, process and technology.

More and more assets are being ’built with BIM’ and this provides an opportunity to revolutionise the way in which users take advantage of the information contained in those assets.

To achieve this, the digital building blocks that are used to create virtual assets need to be standardised. These building blocks are commonly known as BIM objects.

Achieving standardisation between generic and proprietary information is key. Manufacturer objects need to work in a structured manner that consistently connect with generic objects and associated technical specifications. This standardisation of information is at the heart of BIM.

Being able to compare construction data across numerous built assets will help to assess greater whole life value. By comparing projects, decision optimisation becomes possible; lessons can be learned from what works well, and this knowledge can influence future projects, refurbishment works and maintenance activities.

A BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is a combination of many things:

Information content that defines the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739)

Model geometry representing the product’s physical characteristics

Behavioural data such as detection, interaction with other elements, maintenance and clearance zones, that enables the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to be positioned in, or function in the same manner as, the real world product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739)

Visualisation data giving the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object a recognisable appearance

For each of these BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object essentials, a standardised approach allows the creation of digital assets that are more efficient to use, compare and exchange information.

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open vendor-independent neutral file format that defines an extendable set of consistent data representing building information for exchange and interoperability between AEC software applications. Note 1: The IFC specification is developed and maintained by buildingSMART International as its “Data standard”. Note 2: IFC is registered with ISO as ISO 16739 and the Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie) standards have been included in this standard as information exchange data schemas.  COBie is used as a container for non-graphical information to assist in the management of the operational phase of a built asset. Being spreadsheet based it is inexpensive to implement with tools readily available and has forward compatibility with international open standards such as ISO 16739.

By standardising the information recorded within objects, they can be compared and an appropriate selection made for the project. Common approaches to the modelling of the physical characteristics of products make the BIM objects simple to use, affording the designer a reliable, consistent and intuitive experience. The hard work is in the detail, for example BIM objects in IFC format; these IFC files are manipulated so that they have their information properties consistently grouped and organised. This makes their use in various BIM authoring system easier and consistent. Another example is the use of standardised properties. The benefits of this become obvious when using objects from more than one manufacturer in the same project. When creating schedules that span products from many manufacturers, the use of a standardised property set enables information relating to each of these products to be displayed in a single column. This is the start of the common data environment.

With each BIM authoring system vendor having their own approach to information handling, the importance of setting minimum requirements for information transfer is vital to achieving collaboration and interoperability.

Scope

This International standard specifies requirements for the information, geometry, behaviour and presentation of BIM objects to enable consistency, efficiency and interoperability across the construction industry.

This International standard is intended for all construction professionals, service providers, product manufacturers and other BIM content developers to assist in the creation of both generic, manufacturer and project BIM objects.

Section 1 - General requirements: Describes the general requirements for BIM objects. The scope of this section includes general requirements such as object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object categorisation, IfcElementType and PredefinedType requirements. In addition, this section defines the graphical detail within the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

Section 2 - Information requirements: Defines the requirements for the information contained within a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The scope of this section includes general requirements such as property sets, properties and values, as well as General, Classification, Specification and Facilities Management properties.

Section 3 – Geometry requirements: Defines the minimum geometry requirements of the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to describe the physical form of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). The scope of this section includes general requirements such as geometric detail. In addition, this section defines dimensional and measurement requirements.

Section 4 – Functional requirements: Describes the functional requirements that can be embedded within the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, to represent behavioural characteristics, constraints and connectivity.

Section 5 – Metadata requirements: Defines metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) requirements for BIM objects. The scope of this section includes naming conventions for files, properties, materials, values and images.

Presentational conventions

Words in bold and italicised are explained in the Terms and Definitions section of this document.

The word ‘shall’ is used to express requirements of this standard. The word ‘should’ is used to express recommendations. The word ‘may’ is used in the text to express permissibility, e.g. as an alternative to the primary recommendation of the clause. The word ‘can’ is used to express possibility, e.g. a consequence of an action or an event.

Referenced documents

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document:

ISO 15686-4:2014     Building Construction – Service life planning – Part 4: Service life planning using Building Information Modelling

ISO 16739:2013       Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for data sharing in the construction and facility management industries

ISO/PAS 16739:2005   Industry Foundation Classes Release 2x, Platform Specification (Ifc2x)

ISO 80000-1:2009          Quantities and units – Part 1: General

NBIMS-US™ V3              National BIM Standard – United States Version 3

1 General Requirements

This section describes the general requirements for BIM objects. The scope of this section includes general requirements such as object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object categorisation, IfcElementType and PredefinedType requirements. In addition, this section defines the graphical detail within the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

1.1 General

1.1.1 Object designation

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall be:

a) Created as either a generic object Object type intended for use in stages of design when the finalised solution has not yet been completely resolved, a manufacturer object typeobject intended to represent an obtainable product, either as a requirement or exemplar or as-built. Note 1: The term manufacturer object is also synonymous with “proprietary object” or “product object”. or a project object an object created for use within a specific project and not intended to be shared with other projects or included in a library..

A generic object Object type intended for use in stages of design when the finalised solution has not yet been completely resolved is intended for use in stages of design when the finalized solution has not yet been 100% resolved. A manufacturer object typeobject intended to represent an obtainable product, either as a requirement or exemplar or as-built. Note 1: The term manufacturer object is also synonymous with “proprietary object” or “product object”. is intended to represent an obtainable product provided by a manufacture or supplier. The term ‘manufacturer object’ is also synonymous with proprietary object or product object. A project object an object created for use within a specific project and not intended to be shared with other projects or included in a library. is neither a generic object or a manufacturer object, but an object modelled for a specific purpose for a particular project or model.

b) Modelled as either a component object or layered object.

Objects are provided as one of two types, layered object object typically constructed from a number of layers of materials to form a system, modelled without fixed geometry. EXAMPLE: Walls, floors, roofs and ceilings. Note 1: A layered object may consist of one layer e.g. waterproof membrane, insulation, metal decking or consist of a number of layers combined to form a multi layered object. Note 2: A multi layered object is often used where it is more practical to model multiple layers together rather than model each layer individually. Note 3: The layers can represent specific manufactured products or generic materials. or non-layered component objects; both types can be found in generic, manufacturer and project object form.

Component objects: Comprise doors, windows, sanitary ware, furniture, etc. These objects can be further defined as static objects or parametric objects, the difference being that a static object will be available in one size, whereas a parametric object will be available in a range of predetermined sizes (or else the size can be determined by the designer).  These objects can be held outside the model and be imported into it.

Layered objects: Comprise walls, floors, ceilings, roofs, etc. These objects are typically constructed from a number of layers and do not have a fixed geometry; this is defined by the designer, e.g. a concrete floor layer thickness may be determined by the designer’s structural calculations. The thickness of the object layers may also be determined by manufacturers, e.g. an insulation board may be available in a set number of thicknesses.   Typically these objects are system objects that come with the BIM authoring system.  The object itself cannot be added into the model but the definitions of the layers can be imported in to create a specific object.

Layered objects may comprise single or multiple products, for example:

  • A single product layered object could be a composite insulation board with facings and core or a concrete slab.
  • A multiple product layered object could be an external wall, consisting of brick, cavity, insulation and blockwork. In this example the insulation from the example above has been included in the multiple layer build-up.

The BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. used by designers handle multiple layered objects differently. Some authoring systems will have the capability to model multiple product layered objects; others will not have this capability and the layers will have to be modelled individually.

1.1.2 Assembly

The BIM Object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may be:

a) Part of a larger collection of objects with a defined purpose that form an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door..

Component and layered object object typically constructed from a number of layers of materials to form a system, modelled without fixed geometry. EXAMPLE: Walls, floors, roofs and ceilings. Note 1: A layered object may consist of one layer e.g. waterproof membrane, insulation, metal decking or consist of a number of layers combined to form a multi layered object. Note 2: A multi layered object is often used where it is more practical to model multiple layers together rather than model each layer individually. Note 3: The layers can represent specific manufactured products or generic materials. can be aggregated together to form an assembly, e.g. a room. An assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. is a ‘group of components or types to enable the reuse of standardized design or specification elements improving productivity of design and delivery as well as providing a location to hold specifications and lessons learnt in a simple and useable way’. Source PAS 1192.

Assembly objects refer to separated objects combined into a group and then managed as a group in the model or object library. The assembled group of objects may only have metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) for it as a group; can have additional metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) relating to the group; or just have the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) of the constituent objects.  Examples might be an accessible toilet which is an assembled group containing a toilet, handrails, cubical walls, and a door. Each of these objects will have their own metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192), but the assembly could have metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) giving the overall size, the standard it complies with or the like.

Care must be taken when an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. is made up of multiple objects where each material has performance criteria that may be unrelated to the assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. as a whole.

b) Collected within an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. to represent the context in which the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is used.

To aid understanding of the context in which a product can be used an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may be shown within an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door.. For example, a manufacturer’s wall insulation BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may be shown within a generic wall build-up, even if the insulation manufacturer does not supply any other objects within the wall. The accompanying objects forming the wall assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. should have a minimum graphical detail equivalent to a generic object  e.g. the brick outer leaf, and block inner leaf would have a minimum graphical detail equivalent to a generic object Object type intended for use in stages of design when the finalised solution has not yet been completely resolved.

Construction Operation Building information exchange (COBie), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and all BIM authoring tools offer the capability to group components into functional systems. ‘Building Information Modelling. The Digital Plan of Work & Assemblies’ (March 2013 V7-1) states that there are various methods used:

  • Assigning a System to an Attribute of a Component.
    - Component ‘Light Fitting LF 001’ has a property ‘Circuit’ set as ‘Ground Floor lighting’.
  • Assigning the Component to a previously defined Layer to reflect the System.
    - Layer ‘Ground floor lighting’ contains Component ‘Light Fitting LF 001’.
  • Assigning a Component to previously defined System.
    - System ‘Ground Floor Lighting’ includes Component ‘Light Fitting LF 001’.
  • Using Components whose assignment to a System is unambiguous.
    - For example IfcLightFitting may implicitly imply ‘Lighting Installation’.

In some instances, when aggregated together to form an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door., some component information may become irrelevant, e.g. a door handle that comes as part of an overall door assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door..

1.2 Graphical detail

The term ‘graphical detail’ refers to the extent of geometric/shape/visual detail included in a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The term is synonymous with graphical ‘level of’ detail.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object graphical content is for architecture and engineering visualisation/documentation deliverables purposes, not for the manufacturing process. The object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object should have appropriate graphical detail and not include more detail than is either required or is useful, or that will compromise the BIM when used in practice. The principle of not modelling parts of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) that will not be seen should be followed.

In some instances, 3D geometry may not be required or appropriate. An example of this is in modelling a metal window: the outer profile of the frame will be modelled but not the intricate internal framing members; these may be represented using 2D line work incorporated into the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

Consideration should be made to parts of objects that will not be modelled. Examples are fixings such as screws and bolts: these are too small to model currently as the usability of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object will be compromised if there is too much detail.

The graphical detail within an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object can also depend upon the construction discipline. Objects such as pipes and ducts may only need to be characterized by extent (such as a bounding box) and key connectivity. Also, the amount of information included or perceived to be included in a particular type of model or drawing will determine how it might be used by others, and care should be taken that this is not beyond its intended use. For example, an early stage model that shows all pipe and duct sizes may imply that the engineering calculations have been progressed to a stage to support those conclusions, when in fact the modeller has simply selected detailed objects from a library as an indication of the eventual design. The LOD/LOI assigned to the object in the project environment will determine to what level that information can be relied upon.

1.2.1 Graphical extent

The graphical detail of an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall be appropriate for its intended use and informational purpose. The graphical detail of an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall represent the extent of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and its connectivity. Objects can be represented by a 3D bounding box to show location, size, and spatial relationship in the model but preferably be graphically sufficient to recognise the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and indicate its connections and allocated space without containing excessive graphical detail.

Generic objects should be graphically broadly similar to the AIA level of development 200-350.

Manufacturer objects should be graphically broadly similar to the AIA level of development 350.

Project objects should be graphically broadly similar to the AIA level of development 200-400.

PAS 1192-2 requires that the minimum level of detail needed by the (project) team or the employer for each model’s purpose shall be defined. It notes that it is wasteful to the supply chain to deliver a greater level of detail than is needed and which may also overload the IT systems and networks available.

PAS 1192-2 gives a suggestion for the ‘levels of model definition for building and infrastructure projects’ for various project stages (Brief, Concept, Design, Definition, Build and commission, Handover and close-out, and Operation and in-use). As it is not known at which stage of a project’s lifecycle a library object will be used, a more generalized approach has been taken in this standard.

1.2.2 Dimensions

Generic objects shall include nominal or expected dimensions where actual dimensions are unknown. Manufacturer objects and project objects shall include accurate overall dimensions and any further dimensions necessary for the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to fulfil its intended purpose.

A generic object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object should have nominal values (synonyms for nominal are typical, average or expected). A manufacturer object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object or project object an object created for use within a specific project and not intended to be shared with other projects or included in a library. on the other hand, should contain actual dimensions that are representative of physical and functional characteristics of the product.

While dimensions are generally a drafting issue there inclusion in metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) provides key information for specification, costing, and the like.  When they are added ensure that they are accurate and necessary. Irrelevant or inaccurate information won’t assist the process. Where possible, dimensions should be linked parametrically to the object geometry.

1.3 Object type

1.3.1 Identification

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. shall be identifiable within the associated BIM authoring system and assigned using the appropriate IfcElementType and PredefinedType from the BuildingSMART International IFC4 (Add2) schema (ISO 16739). If an appropriate type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. does not exist, the following shall be used:

a) IfcBuildingElementProxyType for the IfcElementType.

b) USERDEFINED, in upper case, for the PredefinedType. The type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. name created shall follow the IFC PascalCase naming convention.

The term ‘Object type’ is also known in other publications as ‘Object class’, ‘template’, ‘style’, ‘functional type’, ‘library part’ or ‘subtype’. To exchange information about a building using common and understood rules, the IFC specification developed and maintained by buildingSMART International as its ‘Data standard’ and registered with ISO as ISO 16739 should be used.

The IfcElementType defines the specific information about a type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. that is common and shared by multiple object occurrences; it is represented by a set of property set definitions. Types can also have shape representations and associated quantity and property sets. The type is further developed through its PredefinedType. For example, this could be ‘IfcDoorStyle’. This equates to two hierarchical levels of IFC, the first being IfcElementType (e.g. IfcDoor) and the second being PredefinedType (e.g IfcDoorStyle).

The IfcDoorStyle defines a particular style of doors which may be included in the spatial context of the building model through single or multiple instances of IfcDoor. A door style defines the overall parameters of the door and refers to the particular parameter of the lining and one (or several) panels through the IfcDoorLiningProperties and the IfcDoorPanelProperties.

Some BIM authoring systems automatically assign IFC information based upon the IFC schema while others require additional properties (e.g. Autodesk® Revit® IfcExportAS and IfcExportType).

Autodesk® Revit® parameter definition for IFC: Revit allows the mapping of specific objects to IfcElementType’s through definition in the IFC export classes dialog box. Since Revit object categories are defined more broadly than the corresponding IFC elements, when exporting from Revit to IFC using default settings, some components will not be correctly mapped. Two additional parameters are available to every object type to override an individual family’s IFC export category:

  • IfcExportAs: This parameter should be filled in with a valid IfcElementType.
  • IfcExportType: This parameter should be filled in with the PredefinedType.

If you know the intended target of the IFC export it is worth communicating with the recipient party, or conducting small test exports, to ensure that all of the required information is included.

When a particular object type is not available within the schema, a proxy can be used. The IfcBuildingElementProxyType defines a list of commonly shared property set definitions of a building element proxy and an optional set of product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) representations. It is used to define an element specification (i.e. the specific product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) information that is common to all occurrences of that product type).

Objects are usually created using the correct tool within the proprietary BIM authoring system (i.e. wall tool, slab tool). Where an object is created using other tools, the type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. must be defined. For example, when using a stair tool, perhaps the correct shape needed for landings, etc. cannot be achieved; these could be drawn using a slab (for example), but then the type must be categorized correctly (i.e. stair). Types may also define the default display of the object when it is loaded into a project: for example, line weight, line colour, line pattern and material assignment.

1.3.2 Parametric objects

Where parametric geometry is being used to create a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object that is to represent multiple objects, such objects shall be assigned a single IfcElementType and PredefinedType.

NOTE:To ensure that the correct IfcElementType is output when exported, design parametric objects to represent products that are characterised by the same IfcElementType, or if the parametric capabilities span multiple IfcElementType’s, ensure that parametric capability automatically sets the correct IfcElementType upon export.

Objects can be modelled with parametric capability to allow for the one modelled object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to represent multiple products by varying the parametric parameters.

A modelled object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object could potentially be assigned multiple IfcElementType designations. To allow for meaningful IFC export, each potential occurrence of a different IfcElementType for that one parametric object should be created as a new individual object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and assigned the relevant IfcElementType and PredefinedType.

Consideration should also be given to the parametric capability of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object within each IfcElementType, to allow for variants of the same IfcElementType to be exportable through IFC.

It is generally recommended to not rely on highly parametric objects when exporting through IFC is a requirement.

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2 Information requirements

This section defines the requirements for the information contained within a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The scope of this section includes general requirements such as property sets, properties and values, as well as General, Classification, Specification and Facilities Management properties.

2.1 General

2.1.1 Property assignment

Properties shall be assigned to an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object that are relevant to the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) that it is representing. If the BIM authoring system supports type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. properties, common properties shall be assigned to the type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. and not to the instance.

NOTE: The term instance is sometimes referred to as component, occurrence or element.

A type property is applicable to many occurrences of its use, whilst the value assigned to an instance property applies to only a single occurrence.

Example:

Configuration (Doorset arrangement indicating number of door leaves and operation) = Type – Single leaf, single action.

DoorNumber (Project door number) = Instance wouldn’t be completed until in the project environment.

In some BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. objects can be built using basic elements like slabs, walls, roofs, etc. with the resulting object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object having nothing to do with the elements that it is made from.  For example a table could be made using a slab and walls.  As the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is representing a table, the properties assigned to it should be for a table, not those required for slabs or walls.

Where the BIM authoring system supports properties against a type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. of object (Family in Autodesk® Revit®), the properties that are common across all instances of this object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object in the model should be assigned as type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. properties. Properties that are unique to the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object occurrence, like serial numbers, are instance properties.

2.1.2 Completed values

Property values shall be completed where known. The appropriate value to a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be used if the data type restricts the use to numeric values. e.g. ‘0’ instead of ‘nil’.

Values associated with certain properties will be dependent upon the stage of the project. For example, the property ‘InstallationDate’ would not have a value associated with it when the object is created as this information would not be known until the product had been installed in the real world. Some values such as ‘AssetIdentifier’ will be completed at handover stage when the asset is made available for use or occupation.

In the case of generic objects, properties such as ‘Manufacturer’ would be unknown. Some values might not be necessary for generic objects; however, some may have suggested values with technical guidance on these options.

When adding properties to objects make sure that the correct datatype is assigned to that property field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192), i.e. numeric or alphanumeric, and if entering values into the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. fields ensure the correct datatype has been entered.

2.1.3 Units of measurement

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall:

a) Use units of measurements that are appropriate to its type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications., intended use and specific domain.

b) Use metric dimensions and units; the only exceptions are where the construction industry has (without dispute) retained imperial terms, e.g. bar as a unit of pressure or where a specific unit has been required by an information schema such as IFC.

Metric units are taken from the International System of Units (SI), which is based on the international System of Quantities adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM). Included are names and symbols, a series of prefixes and rules for use.

c)Imply the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. unit by the value type, e.g. length = mm, where the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. unit has not been given or is not stated within the value.

It is preferable to not include units within the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume., unless required by the schema (e.g. COBie).

2.1.4 Unit symbols

BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object values shall use base unit symbols as defined in ISO 80000-1.

ISO 80000-1 gives general information and definitions concerning quantities, systems of quantities, units, quantity and unit symbols, and coherent unit systems, especially the International System of Quantities (ISQ) and the International System of Units (SI).

2.1.5 Dimensional properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include properties providing dimensional information limited to that necessary to define unambiguously the nominal geometry of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), with the exception of clause 2.8.4 (g) & (h).

The intention of a generic object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object or manufacturer object typeobject intended to represent an obtainable product, either as a requirement or exemplar or as-built. Note 1: The term manufacturer object is also synonymous with “proprietary object” or “product object”. is to imply a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) rather than manufacture or fabricate it, dimensional information should be limited to define the nominal model geometry and imply the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), whilst at the same time provide sufficient information relating the operation and installation spatial requirements for that object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. A project object may include dimensional information required for fabrication.

2.2 Values

2.2.1 General

Completion of a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. value shall infer information accuracy. Objects being created for an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object library shall include pre-determined sizes, multiple sizes, and configurations that are accurately represented and easily available for selection within the BIM authoring system. Where a dimension property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. affects the geometric size or shape of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object it shall change the size or shape of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object in the model when the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. value is changed.

BIM objects may have a number of variations and options from which the designer will be required to make a selection. How this is best achieved will be dependent upon the individual BIM authoring system. Not all attributes require completion when the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is placed in a project model.  The extent of completion should be defined by the project’s requirements and its stage. Not all property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. values require an absolute numerical value but, if not, they should have ‘maximum’, ‘minimum’ or ‘in the range of’.

A BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may be highly configurable with parametric features and instance properties, which require the designer to make decisions, making the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object very flexible. For example, an object that could be fabricated in any size may have instance properties for height and width.

A BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object with multiple options may be developed as individual objects that are then embedded into the overall BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, for example a window could be made up of frame, mullions and glass.

Where the BIM authoring system allows, a catalogue that will load multiple versions of a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object can be very efficient in presenting many possible product variations, or predefined types. This is typically done through a text-based file.

Ensuring that any dimensional properties are linked (parametric properties) to the graphical representations that they relate to will reduce errors of having a different value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. in the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. than that indicated by the geometric model.

2.2.2 Property values

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. value shall:

a) Be assigned an alphanumeric data type, where the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. has no restrictions on allowing both numbers and characters to be entered.

When a property requires a mixture of both numbers and characters, an alphanumeric datatype must be used. So if it is required to have units within the property value, the datatype must be assigned as alphanumeric.

b) Not include units within the value field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192), except where the unit is required to be expressed within the value, in which case the value shall be separated from its units by a space, with the exception of degree Celsius, percentage and angular degree.

Generally, property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. units are not stated within the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. as they are implied by the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object.. Where a unit is given, it should be separated from the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. by a space. It is not practical to add the unit to the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. name as many properties are hard coded or belong to a schema such as IFC where the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. name shall not be changed.

2.2.2PropertyValues

c) Be capitalised consistently using sentence case without text formatting (e.g. no bolding or italics). Conjunctions, acronyms, model numbers.

d) Not end in a full stop.

2.2.3 Dependence

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. value can be expressed as a formula where the value is dependent upon other properties.

Formulae can be used to derive other pieces of information and populate other property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. values.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.2.4 Product variants

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object can represent product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) variants using a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. with a value comprising of one of the following:

a) A single value where a value has a single selection. Predetermine and complete the value where the value is available and known.

The options identified for allowing for product variants are to be used by object authors creating objects to be used by others at a later date (e.g. library objects). Users of such objects would then select the required variant when using the object in a project environment, from the variants available.

a) BuildingSMART defines an IfcPropertySingleValue as ‘a property object which has a single (numeric or descriptive) value assigned’.

2.2.2PropertyValues

b) A list value where several unique values of the same type are given in an ordered list, the order of which is significant e.g. 200, 400, 600, 800.

BuildingSMART defines a list value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. as ‘a property that has several (numeric or descriptive) values assigned, these values are given by an ordered list’. The order in which the values appear is significant: each value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. in the list is unique and all list members should be of the same type.

2.2.2PropertyValues

c) A bounded value where a value has an upper and lower limit (range). Present the lowest bound first followed by the highest bound, e.g. 175kW – 200kW. Where the range uses positive and negative signs, separate the numbers using ‘to’, e.g. -10oC to +20oC. If the value is not given, it indicates an open bound, e.g. 175kW – <nil> (i.e. all values to be greater than or equal to LowerBoundValue 175 kW).

BuildingSMART defines a bounded value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. (range) as ‘a property object which has a maximum of two (numeric or descriptive) values assigned, the first value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. specifying the lower bound and the second value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. specifying the upper bound’.

2.2.2PropertyValues

d) An enumerated value where a value has a choice of fixed values selected from a defined list of enumerators. Separate individual items from each other using a comma and a single space, e.g. a, b, c, d.

BuildingSMART defines an enumerated value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. as ‘a property object which has a value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. assigned which is chosen from an enumeration’.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.3 Property set

2.3.1 Property set presentation

Properties shall be organised so that they are easily viewed and retrieved, and consistently located within the BIM authoring system, where possible. Properties shall be grouped in property sets as defined in Table 1.

2.2.2PropertyValues

Different BIM authoring systems use different terms for similar concepts around the concept of groups, properties, and property set collection of properties associated with an object and grouped together based on some principle, e.g. viewpoint, lifecycle stage. The standard looks to follow the IFC usage of these terms. The context of clause 2.3 relates to the organisation  or collection of properties and property set collection of properties associated with an object and grouped together based on some principle, e.g. viewpoint, lifecycle stage.

Autodesk® Revit® assigns properties to a Display Group, which determines how properties are displayed in the user interface. These display groups are not user editable so do not provide a suitable replacement for property sets. Within an Autodesk® Revit® shared parameter file, the ‘Group’ column relates to what IFC would call a property set, so Autodesk® Revit® does provide a relationship between a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. and its set.  Other than this, property sets do not feature in the Autodesk® Revit® user interface. IFC, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® & Bentley® AECOsim® and others support displaying properties in their property sets.

2.3.2 Occurrence

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include only one occurrence of a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object..

An object should not have duplicate properties (same GUID or name used more than once) and where possible it should avoid having properties that have different names for the same values.

Adding IFC, COBie or some user-defined property sets to an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may duplicate some properties that are already included by the BIM authoring system. These could be hard coded properties, or properties required by some other process or function (like analysis tools). If the BIM authoring system or add-on tools allow the properties to be mapped, either in the user interface or during the export process, then any duplicated properties that are required to satisfy the requirements of a particular schema, should be mapped to a single occurrence of that property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object..

Some BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. allow for the use of formulas that copy the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. from a hard coded property to a different property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object..  This may not always be possible with every BIM authoring system.

For example in Autodesk® Revit®, mapped properties are displayed in grey with a note stating which property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. they are mapped to and the value field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) is deactivated.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.3.3 Order of priority

Where a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. exists in multiple property sets, the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include a single property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. occurrence based upon the order of priority defined in Table 2. If the BIM authoring system contains a hard coded property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. that is identical to a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. included in this standard, then the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. from this standard shall be omitted provided that the hard coded property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. is mapped to the corresponding IFC property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. at export if an identical IFC property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. exists.

2.2.2PropertyValues

If properties appear in more than one set, say IFC and COBie, this clause establishes which property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. should be used.

Hard coded properties are fixed data or properties in a BIM authoring system that cannot be altered. Where these allow for tasks such as performance analysis and calculations of a specific functionality, they should be completed with a value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume., if known and available.

Hard coded properties may already be assigned to the properties of a predefined category of object and may not be able to be deleted. Other software (such as performance analysis software) may rely on these hard coded properties upon export.

2.3.4 Identical property information

Where properties have different names but the same definition and value requirement, they shall be used based upon the order of priority in clause 2.3.3.

An example may be where a BIM authoring system has a hard coded property titled ‘Length’ and the COBie schema has a property titled ‘NominalLength’. Whilst these properties have different names, they have the same value requirement and based on the order of priority in clause 2.3.3, the hard coded ‘Length’ property shall be used, with the relevant value mapped to the COBie property ‘NominalLength’ at export.

2.3.5 Precedence

Where a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. exists with the same name at type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. and instance component) level, the type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall take precedence.

Where possible it is best to avoid duplicating properties at different levels (i.e. type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. and instance) within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object structure.

2.4 Property and property set naming

2.4.1 General

Property names shall be entered as PascalCase, without units. Where a parent-child relationship occurs, prefix the child with the corresponding parent property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. so they sort logically.

NOTE: Where the BIM authoring system supports properties on materials, a ‘_mtrl’ suffix shall be included in the name of the properties associated with materials.

By prefixing the corresponding parent property, the information can be sorted logically.

If the BIM authoring system supports parameters on materials, such as Autodesk® Revit®, these need a means to identify them from properties on families (or the like) so are named with a suffix ‘_mtrl’.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.4.2 Boolean data

Properties with values having boolean (Yes/ No) data types shall be named so that they clearly imply that they require a Yes/ No value, e.g. HasHandle.

A boolean datatype is a datatype that can only provide two possible values, for example TRUE or FALSE. Some BIM authoring systems use a similar concept of YES or NO. Where the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requires a boolean value, the property shall be named so that a TRUE or FALSE, or YES or NO value is required, for example ‘IsExternal’ is an indication whether the element is designed for use in the exterior (TRUE or YES) or not (FALSE or NO). If the value is TRUE or YES then this implies that it is an external element and faces the outside of the building.

2.4.3 Property set naming

The property set shall be suitably named to reflect its purpose as defined in Table 3. Fields in a property set name shall be separated using an underscore and ordered as follows:

<Schema>_<Purpose>_<Differentiator>

e.g. ABC_Electrical_Lighting

2.2.2PropertyValues

NOTE: The names of tables 4 to 12 are the Property Set Names for the properties defined in this standard.  E.g. Table 5 — IBOS_Classification, the property set name for these properties is IBOS_Classification.

For Autodesk® Revit®users, a property set is the Parameter group in the shared parameter file and properties are Parameters as shown in this user interface:

2.2.2PropertyValues

Some example schema differentiators are:

Pset_ DoorCommon (IFC)

Pset_TankTypePressureVessel (IFC)

IBOS_Classification (This standard)

COBie_Specification (COBie)

WRAP_Enironmentalimpacts_UK (BRE UK)

BRE_ImpactDeclaration_UK (BRE UK)

BRE_ImpactDeclaration_France (BRE UK)

2.5 IFC Property sets

2.5.1 Common property sets

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include IFC4 common property sets (Pset_xxxxCommon) that are relevant to the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) and associated IfcElementType and PredefinedType, where available.

An IfcElementType defines the specific information about a type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. and can be further represented by a set of property set definitions. For example, IfcBoilerType can be further defined by Pset_BoilerTypeCommon which includes common attributes (properties) for boilers.

Example of expected IFC Common properties: Pset_BoilerTypeCommon

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.5.2 Proxy

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include Pset_BuildingElementProxyCommon if no IFC common property set (Pset_xxxxCommon) exists for that object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object in IFC4. Where Pset_BuildingElementProxyCommon is used, the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include a ‘Reference’ property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. completed with an alphanumeric value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. acting as an identifier for the specific object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications..

When a particular property set is not available within the schema, a proxy can be used. The Pset_BuildingElementProxyCommon defines properties that are common or useful to a wide range of application types.

Pset_BuildingElementProxyCommon

Property Name

Reference

Status

IsExternal

ThermalTransmittance

LoadBearing

FireRating

2.5.3 IFC2x3

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object can include additional information from Ifc2x3 (ISO/PAS 16739) in addition to IFC4 Add2 (ISO 16739).

IFC4 relates to ISO 16739:2013 while IFC2x3 relates to ISO/PAS 16739:2005. Supplementary information from IFC2x3 can be used in addition to IFC4 as long as this is not to the determent of IFC4. If IFC does not support a specific need that you have, buildingSMART first recommends consideration of whether:

  • There is the need for an object (with representations and relationships to other objects in the model); or
  • There is the need for further properties.

‘For example, an airflow application models spaces and cracks. Spaces are already part of the IFC schema, but there is no representation of a ‘crack’. However, any crack is in reality associated to a physical object, a wall, door or window. Hence a property set can be defined to hold the properties of the crack, such as the length, average width, and perhaps also the airflow rate expected for a given pressure. As another example, perhaps your building proposal includes an artistic sculpture in the courtyard. This is clearly not a simple property of the courtyard, and the IFC model supports proxy objects. These function as objects but make no assertion as to their function or role. The application should offer the user the facility to classify or describe the object in detail’.

  • IFC4 has predefined Pset’s for IfcBoilerType of Pset_BoilerTypeSteam and Pset_BoilerTypeWater; in IFC2X3 only Pset_BoilerTypeSteam existed.
  • In IFC2x3 ‘NominalEfficiency’ and ‘HeatOutput’ were in Pset_BoilerTypeCommon; in IFC4 these have been removed and added to Pset_BoilerTypeWater.

The properties of ‘NominalEfficiency’ and ‘HeatOutput’ are IfcPropertyTableValues in IFC4 Pset_BoilerTypeWater, these were previously IfcListValues in IFC2X3 Pset_BoilerTypeCommon.

Since 1996 there have been six principal schema releases: IFC1.5.1, IFC2.0, IFC2x, IFC2x2, IFC2x3 and IFC4.

2.6 General properties

2.6.1 IBOS_General properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include the IBOS_General properties defined in Table 4. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

2.2.2PropertyValues

BIM objects require sufficient information so that they can be identified. This will mean both human-readable information such as descriptions, product numbers and manufacturer names, as well as computer-readable information such as Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs).

Author: The author is defined as the originator of model files, drawings or documents.

ProductInformation: Not all information is required to be placed within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. It is sometimes better to link to an external source (such as manufacturer’s technical data).

Revision: The BIM object should carry a ‘Revision’ property that indicates the issue sequence of the contained information. This would be completed at a project level.

Version: ‘Version’ represents the sequence in which the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object was published/amended/revised within an object library environment, not within a project model.

2.7 Classification properties

2.7.1 IBOS_Classification properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall include the IBOS_Classification properties defined in Table 5. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

2.2.2PropertyValues

PAS 1192-2 defines classification as the ‘Systematic arrangement of headings and sub-headings for aspects of construction work including the nature of assets, construction elements and products’.

Different jurisdictions and different projects may require the use of different classification systems. This standard has included Uniclass2015 so that all objects from all jurisdictions have at least one common classification assigned to them.

As an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object can be used to represent a wide range of products, clause 2.7.1 allows for the choice of classification from the Uniclass2015 table appropriate for the element.

More information on the Uniclass2015 tables and classification codes can be found here: https://toolkit.thenbs.com/articles/classification#classificationtables.

2.8 Facilities management properties

2.8.1 Provision of properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall have properties to support life-cycle information exchange about the rooms and equipment in a building and assist with the management of the asset. These properties shall either be embedded within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object or simply available for use, provided with object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object as an accompanying set of available properties. These facilities management properties shall be provided from the IFC facilities management related property sets defined in Tables 6 to 8 or from the COBie Model View Definition (MVD) properties defined in Tables 9 and 10.

NOTE: Information on the COBie MVD can be found in Chapter 4.2 of the United States National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS-US) V3.

Whilst using BIM for facilities management (FM) may be in its infancy in Australia, developing an international object metadata standard that did not consider FM properties was not considered a sensible idea.

However, rather than making it a requirement that COBie properties were included on all objects created in conformance to this standard, it was felt that a more flexible approach should be taken.

The option of providing either IFC FM properties or COBie properties has been provided for. Also, the standard has been written to allow for more flexible ways of working and assigning properties to an object and hence this standard allows for the FM properties to be either embedded within the object or provided with the object as an accompanying set of properties that are available with the object at download and can be assigned to the object as and when necessary. An example of how such properties may be provided, could be an spreadsheet or a text file.

The FM properties shall be selected from either the IFC property sets of the COBie MVD property sets.

ISO 29481-1:2010 states that ‘Generally, software solutions do not support the entirety of a schema such as IFC; they support an industrially relevant subset which is generally termed a view definition. Software may be certified in terms of how well it supports a view definition. That is, a view definition provides a relationship between the whole schema and the software solution that implements it’.

For further information on currently certified software and the software certification scheme, see the buildingSMART website.

http://www.buildingsmart.org/compliance/certified-software/

2.8.1.1 IFC facilities management properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may have the IFC (Pset_) properties defined in Tables 6 to 8 available for use, provided with object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object as an accompanying set of available properties or embedded in the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

The following three IFC property sets may be used to include information for facilities management purposes. If using COBie, it is not necessary to also include the properties included in Tables 6 to 8.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.8.1.2 COBie properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may have the COBie Type and Component properties defined in Tables 9 and 10 available for use, provided with object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object as an accompanying set of available properties or embedded in the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

NOTE 1: Where the recording of COBie data is a requirement, it is only necessary to include COBie data for managed assets.

NOTE 2: If a value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. is unknown, the spreadsheet format of COBie requires ‘n/a’ to be entered for alphanumeric fields, ‘0’ for numeric fields and ‘1900-12-31T23:59:59’ for date fields, other formats require a null value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume..

Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie) was devised by Bill East of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, and has been adopted by a number of governments departments around the world, primarily in the UK and US. It is a data format that allows for sharing a subset of building information for the operation of an asset.

It helps with the capture of product information, warranties, spare parts and maintenance requirements through the design and construction process.

COBie - Construction Operation Building information exchange - is defined and maintained by buildingSMART Alliance.

http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/

The most common means of delivering and working with this information is a standardised spreadsheet though more technologies are developing to automate the creation and use of COBie information.

COBie is limited in its use to facilities, the schema was not developed to address all construction projects and hence not all products. It is not particularly well suited to projects of a linear or horizontal nature, such as transport, water, power, maritime, etc.

In countries using COBie they typically require “Data Drops” where the project team agrees in the BIM Execution plan that certain properties within the COBie schema will be completed at different phases in the design and construction process. The idea being, that as decisions are made about the products being used, the properties relating to those decisions are completed. This might be a type of object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object at concept phase, then a capacity at design stage, then a manufacturer and model number during construction documentation, then a specific serial number at the commissioning stage.

Managed assets are generally discrete manufactured, manufactured-to-order, or engineered-to-order products. These products are those appearing in Operations and Maintenance manuals.

A list of type and component assets included within the COBie schema export and therefore defined as managed assets can be found on the ‘Type Assets’ and ‘Component Assets’ sheets of the COBie responsibility matrix:

http://projects.buildingsmartalliance.org/files/?artifact_id=4093

This list does not -- nor was never intended to -- include site-built or site-adapted building elements such as structural elements or flow transport elements such short as ducts, pipes, or wires.

It is recommended that COBie properties be included on objects even if COBie is not a project/client requirement. As it is not known what information may be required by facilities managers in the future and it would also mean that objects created now would not need to be modified later for use on a future project where COBie may be requirement.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.2.2PropertyValues

It is a requirement of the COBie schema that ‘n/a’ is completed as a value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. for all COBie type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. properties where the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. is as yet unknown or is not relevant to that object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

Category: In COBie this is synonymous with Classification. ISO/CD 12006-2 states that the purpose of classifying is to distinguish between objects in a collection based on properties of interest.

The categorisation (classification) system used should be the one agreed for the project; generally dictated by the asset owner or asset operator.  This field is populated as per the COBie convention, a single text string with the classification number, a colon, and the classification name, so while it may contain the same information as the classification properties defined in clause 2.7.1 it is entered differently.

AssetType: Used for accounting purposes. Fixed equipment relates to assets which are usually attached and integral to buildings’ functionality; for example heating, plumbing and ventilation systems. Movable (US spelling – COBie requirement) assets are those such as furniture and equipment that are not part of the building.

Manufacturer: The term 'manufacturer' may also be used to refer to products that are supplied and identified by the supplier or that are assembled offsite by a third party provider. Given in the form of an email address (COBie requirement).

NominalLength / NominalWidth / NominalHeight: ‘Typical’ is a representative value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. of the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. between min. and max. ‘Nominal’ is the nominal representation value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. of the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object., often mentioned in catalogues. It is best practice to map this property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. value to the geometry so information is not duplicated and the data is coming from one single source.

Color: Even if a manufacturer and model number has been identified, the product may come in a range of colours, upon which the selection has yet to be confirmed and may be populated at a later stage in the project timeline.

2.2.2PropertyValues

It is a requirement of the COBie schema that ‘n/a’ is completed as a value for all COBie component properties where the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. is as yet unknown or is not relevant to that object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. Properties that require a date value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume., where unknown, are to be completed with the default value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. ‘1900-12-31T23:59:59’ to inform users of the date format that must be entered when the value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume. is known.

2.9 Additional properties

2.9.1 IBOS_Classification properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include additional IBOS_Classification properties, defined in Table 11. Replace <ClassificationSystemName> within the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. name with the name of the classification system (and table, if required) being used. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

Multiple classification systems can be assigned to an object if required.

ISO 15686-4 states that one or more classification can be associated with a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739).

Refer to clause AU.1.2 for suggested classification properties for use in Australia, in addition to the requirements of clause 2.7.

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.9.2 IBOS_Specification properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include IBOS_Specification properties, defined in Table 12. The property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement.

2.2.2PropertyValues

NOTE: The BIM authoring system may provide fields specifically intended for this purpose, E.g. Assembly Code, Keynote Code, these can be used in place of the SpecificationReference property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object..

Specific specification information can be referenced by the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object by including the properties included in this clause.

The specification clause number (SpecificationReference) and the specification clause title (SpecificationDescription) can be assigned to the object.

2.9.3 User defined properties

Additional properties can be added to objects in a User defined data property set (see Clause 2.3). Each User defined data property set should consist of related properties that extend the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) available from the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

Properties added to objects that would not be contained within an IFC (Pset_), COBie­_ or IBOS_ property set (see clause 2.3) should be added to a User defined property set, named in accordance with clause 2.4.3.

2.9.4 Supplementary properties

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include additional properties that are appropriately assigned to the most relevant property set (see Clause 2.3). Suggested properties may include:

a) Characteristic selection and performance properties to ISO 15686-4.

ISO 15686-4 provides information and guidance on the use of standards for information exchange for service life planning of buildings and constructed assets and their components, as well as the required supporting data.

b) Property sets relevant to the IFC PredefinedType, where applicable.

A property set may exist that is relevant to the IFC PredefinedType and may be included.

c) Properties to assess economic and environmental impacts of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739).

Properties relating to service life, costs, sustainability, etc.

d) Additional properties derived from the relevant specification system clause and completed with the appropriate property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. name and value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume..

An example may be to include properties that relate to specific items included within the schedules of the specification system being used. This would allow automatic completion of specification schedules from the data included in the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

e) Additional properties derived from the product manufacturer.

Manufacturers may have product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) properties which are not already been covered within the Hard coded, IFC, COBie_ or IBOS_ property sets recorded within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

f) Properties providing information concerning all objects forming an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door., as well as properties that characterise the overall assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door..

Each material or product should carry relevant and applicable information about the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), while the assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. as a whole should carry relevant and applicable information about the performance of that assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. where the BIM authoring system allows. When constituent parts are aggregated into an assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door., the relevance of some constituent parts may be diminished: for example, a door handle that is only available in one selection type and forms part of an overall door system.

g) Properties providing dimensional information that relate to required clearance, operation, maintenance or installation zones or connection points of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). (See 3.5.1 Installation and maintenance).

See guidance to clause 3.5.1

h) Properties providing fabrication information for project object an object created for use within a specific project and not intended to be shared with other projects or included in a library., e.g. project specific pre-cast panels.

It is not recommended to overload objects with information required for fabrication, however, project objects, such as pre-cast panels or the like, will require fabrication information to be included.

3 Geometry requirements

This section defines the minimum geometry requirements of the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to describe the physical form of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). How detailed the geometry is depends on a number of factors such as the type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. of object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and how it is intended to be used; together with the practicalities of working with contemporary BIM authoring system. The scope of this section includes general requirements such as geometric detail. In addition, this section defines dimensional and measurement requirements.

Geometric information is divided into:

  • General geometry data
  • Graphical control
  • Shape data
  • Symbolic data
  • Spatial requirements data
  • Surface/ material data

3.1 General

3.1.1 Model performance

The geometry and graphical detail of an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall not compromise the performance of the project model in which it is placed.

The object should be modelled with graphical detail that will not compromise the model when used in practice. Follow the principle of not modelling elements of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) that will not be seen.

The intention of a BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is to imply a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) rather than manufacture it, fabricate it or be an exact photorealistic representation of it.

3.1.2 Object modelling requirements

Further recommendations and guidance on geometrical modelling techniques may be available from local sources, such as ANZRS for Revit users in Australia and New Zealand.

When geometrically modelling BIM objects, the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall:

a) Have geometry modelled at a scale of 1:1.

Objects should be created at a scale of 1.1. Many problems that arise during construction can be traced to errors and ambiguities of dimensions, particularly when information is entered incorrectly. Dimensions added as text that are unrelated to the geometric object can also cause errors.

b) Include an insertion point that is suitable for its intended use.

An insertion point is the point at which the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is placed into the project environment (usually indicated by the cursor position). Depending on the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object type, the insertion point may vary from object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object to object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. For example, for doors and windows the insertion point may be central so the content parametrically expands outwards.  Ensure that the default insertion point used when creating the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is appropriate for the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and is consistent for similar types of objects.

If the BIM authoring system allows for a different object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object origin to the insertion point, it is best to model objects with an origin of 0,0,0.

c) Minimise the use of temporary modelling information such as construction lines and reference material.

Minimise the use of and remove any superfluous, redundant or temporary graphical information from the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

d) Have parametric geometry, where supported by the BIM authoring system and where appropriate, that is associated to defined geometric reference values or points.

To avoid errors where dimensional property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. data does not correlate to the geometric representation of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, use parametric geometry, where supported by the BIM authoring system.

Where a manufacturer states restrictions on certain criteria of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), these should, if appropriate, be built into the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. An example of this would be if a door manufacturer has a limitation on the size of the door it can produce: this limitation should be built into the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object where the BIM authoring system will allow.

It is not recommended to produce highly parametric objects, as some of this functionality may be lost when exporting the object to IFC (see guidance to clause 1.3.2).

e) Include dimensions that are constrained to reference values or points and derived automatically using associative dimensioning functions within the BIM authoring system.

Graphical dimensional call-outs should be derived automatically using associative dimensioning functions within the BIM authoring system. By entering dimensions as ‘text’ there will be no direct relationship with the geometry as the dimensions are purely graphical characters.

f) Include labels that are constrained to reference values or points. Labels on drawings that present the same information as contained in the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) shall match the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) value information given against a property. EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume..

If a drawing label refers to the same information as contained in the object metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) they must match.  If not a user reading the drawing will get different information to another reading the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) or using software that reads the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192). Ideally the label should be linked to the metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192). If the label does not refer to information contained in the object metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192), then there is no requirement to match the data.

If using Autodesk® Revit®, constrain labels to a reference plane.

g) Use metric geometry with units of millimetres.

h) Represent the actual thickness of a layer within a layered object, unless unsupported by the BIM authoring system, in which case the minimum thickness supported by the BIM authoring system shall be used.

Some layers within a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) or assembly collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object e.g. An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door. may be very thin, below the minimum thickness supported by the BIM authoring system for graphical display. In these situations, represent that layer within a layered object using the minimum thickness supported by the BIM authoring system.

i) Incorporate best practice modelling techniques for the BIM authoring system to minimise file size, ensuring that the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is as efficient and compact as possible and that that any redundant materials, line types, fills, external CAD content, or the like that are not used by the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object are removed.

It is best practice to build objects that utilise only native BIM elements in their creation. Leaving DWG, DWF, or non BIM 3D content (e.g. Autodesk® 3DS® or Trimble® SketchUp® objects) or other non BIM content within the object will result in larger file sizes and/or poorer performing objects.

j) Be purged or compacted, where supported by the BIM authoring system.

k) Only include previews, thumbnails, or attached images that are of an appropriate resolution and image file size.

3.2 Graphical control

3.2.1 View management

Where the BIM authoring system supports user configurable tools that provide for the management of views or graphical control of groups of objects (using concepts such as layers or subcategories), the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall:

a) Only include view control groups that improve the object’s functionality.

b) Have view control groups named using PascalCase within fields (avoiding the use of material names), an underscore between fields and be composed of:

<UsageGroup>_<UsageSubGroup>_<Differentiator>

2.2.2PropertyValues

Most BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. provide a means for controlling the visibility of objects in groups allowing the user to easily switch on or off parts of the model to aid visibility and model performance. In Graphisoft® ArchiCAD® this is via Layers, Autodesk® Revit® uses Categories and Sub Categories, other BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. support similar concepts. As these can be defined by users and are embedded in objects, importing objects into a model also brings them into the model.  Naming these consistently reduces the chances of similar layers or sub categories being duplicated in the model.

Note, only use <UsageSubGroup> or <Differentiator> if they are needed. The examples below include both of these but it only makes sense to go to this level of breakdown if the model contained many similar elements that required segmenting at this level.

Examples:

2.2.2PropertyValues

2.2.2PropertyValues

Object variations or options should be modelled and categorized within the BIM authoring system to enable their visibility to be controlled easily.

Where clearance zones indicating space requirements for accessibility or specific activities such as maintenance access have been included, they should be modelled as a volume and categorized appropriately, with relevant controls to enable them to be hidden or revealed as required. These parameters should be named consistently to allow functionality to be developed to show all/hide all in a particular graphical view.

Shape data

3.3.1 Shape modelling requirements

The shape of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) shall be represented by including the following:

a) A geometric representation of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shape, defined by the product’s external boundary.

Geometric representation is also referred to as product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) shape.

Follow the principle of not modelling elements of a product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) that will not be seen or are not required for any other reason than just adding to the visual effect.

b) Essential openings, geometric details and connection points from which meaningful information can be gained, e.g. outlet and inlet locations.

If modelling a door, essential openings could be considered to be the main structural feature, for example. Modelling details such as architraves and mouldings will add to the visual effect but their structural value may be limited.

Shape data

3.3.2 Fixed geometry

Fixed geometry shall be used where the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) is not intended to be modifiable, has a fixed form or is available in one size and shape only (i.e. object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall be modelled without parametric behaviour being permitted/available).

An object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object such as a WC, for example, that is only available in one size should be presented as a fixed form to reflect the real world selection and availability of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739).

3.4 Symbolic data

3.4.1 Displaying objects

To allow coherent viewing of BIM objects the following shall be included:

a) A means of displaying a graphical convention (a representation, a simplified representation or a symbol) at scales 1:20, 1:50 and 1:100. Use an appropriate graphical convention for the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) and scale.

A convention is an accepted way of drawing an item which may have the nature of a representation, a simplified representation or a symbol.

A representation is a scale view of an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, often also referred to as visibility or display. The terms ‘Low/symbolic/simple/Course, Medium, High/detailed/fine/realistic’ are often used as a substitute for 1:20, 1:50 and 1:100.

Ensure that objects support 2D detail at 1:100 as a minimum. If objects only support larger 2D scales, then any 1:100 views will be swamped with detail.

A simplified representation can reduce modelling authoring time and is most appropriate when a limited indication of the features of an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is required.

A symbolcan be used where the size is not significant and a non-realistic indication of the object is appropriate. The symbol size and shape does not necessarily relate to the size and shape of the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object or to the scale representation. Regard should be given to the symbol’s graphical detail, its intended representative scale and plotted output. A symbol can be added to a convention, a representation, a simplified representation or another symbol.

b) Default lines, line types, hatching and fill patterns, as appropriate to the BIM authoring system and conforming to local industry practice, to distinguish between geometric features such as depth and product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) parts.

The term line type is also synonymous with line pattern.

Lines, hatching, and fills are used to improve the users understanding and visualisation of the object in 2D and 3D.  They also allow the object developer to differentiate different components that may make up the object.

It is preferable to use ‘out of the box’ fill or hatching patterns provided by the BIM platform being used. This avoids having multiple similar/identical patterns with different names within the model. When creating new fill or hatching patterns it is important to use a consistent naming convention similar to that used for the ‘out of the box’ patterns.

3.4.2 Supplementary symbolic data

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include the following:

a) Information devices or supplementary geometry to show abstract items and convey geometric information that would not otherwise be modelled, such as directional arrows and opening directions.

Geometric shapes for information devices are limited and therefore could have more than one meaning. A geometric shape for an information device should not be used if its meaning is not determined by context and experience; for example, a window opening direction or a flow direction arrow.  Source BS 1192-2.

b) 2D lines where required to convey relevant geometric details that are not otherwise modelled in 3D.

Details can be used to convey relevant geometry that is not modelled in 3D; they can also be used to expand upon information. In addition, a detail may be used to model geometry to show specific placement requirements; for example, to show specific detailing requirements of a window when used in different wall constructions.

3.5 Spatial requirements data

3.5.1 Installation and maintenance

A description of a product’s shape alone is not always sufficient to check whether it can be correctly installed. Products and equipment may require surrounding operation space or additional space requirements for transportation, installation and assembly.

  • Minimum operation space (clearance zones): That required for product to correctly function, including circulation and opening of doors, hatches, etc.
  • Access space: That required for maintenance and operation of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). Maintenance includes, but is not limited to, cleaning, servicing, repairing and replacing parts of the asset.
  • Placement and transportation space: That required for the largest single subassembly into which the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) can be broken down to allow ingress to and egress from its place of installation in the built asset.
  • Installation space: That required for on-site assembly, installation or de-installation of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739).
  • Detection zone space: That required for motion detection, functional coverage and sensor/ detector range.
  • Zones for non-modelled applied finishes: That required for clash detection purposes and overall spatial coordination, which would not generally be modelled digitally, but will be in place on the installed product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). Applies to finishes, coatings, insulation or other components added to the object.  E.g. generally ducts are shown as the sheet metal size but can have insulation applied to the outside which affects clearances.

Using a different material for the clearance space or using different geometry definitions ensures that these spaces are able to be identified digitally as separate to the core object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include 2D and 3D data, which is clearly segregated from physical geometry in the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object by either material or by geometry definition that relates to the space required around the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), such as:

• Minimum operation space (clearance zones)

• Access space

• Placement and transportation space

• Installation space

• Detection zone space

• Zones for non-modelled applied finishes (e.g. fire protection to column)

3.6 Surface and material data

3.6.1 Visual representation

Renderings are photorealistic outputs from the BIM which show a more accurate depiction of the material than the model view. BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. allow for the configuration of the rendered appearance of the materials, such as transparency and reflectivity.

Image files can also be used to represent the material’s appearance. Bitmaps and bump maps can give additional appearance of texture to image files. The image should be scaled correctly and allow for a repeated pattern.

The product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) surface is the coloured and textured outer boundary of the product’s shape; its rendered appearance responds to relative lighting and viewing angles.

Materials may be assigned a surface pattern, fill pattern, hatch pattern and specific line work for 2D representation to control the outward appearance of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) or product surface. They allow the designer to graphically determine and differentiate between different materials. Some materials may only be visible in a particular graphical view such as a section, e.g. cavity wall insulation.

Materials may also be assigned a specific colour or a designated render to control the outward appearance of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) or product surface. Simple representative colours help aid identification of the object within the model view (the model view appearance determines how the material looks as the designer is working within the BIM authoring system) and can be representative rather than the colour which reflects the actual product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) colour. For example, within a multi-layered wall the designer can use colour to visually determine and differentiate the different materials within the wall build-up. This is just as effective as the use of hatch patterns.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include colours, hatching, fill patterns or texture image files, to an appropriate scale, to reflect the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) material and appearance in the relevant graphical view, e.g. elevation, section, isometric and animation views.

3.6.2 Generic object colour

Generic objects may use a representative colour for the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739), or a default of grey if the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) is provided in more than one colour.

3.6.3 Control and selection

Creating and assigning the material to the instance or type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications. provides the most flexibility for the designer.

Individual control and selection of textures and colours for a material’s constituent parts shall be provided where functionally possible within the BIM authoring system.

3.6.4 Default materials

BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. may include a number of default materials within an inbuilt library.

Materials carry information regarding identity, performance and appearance. They can be used on their own, as finishes and coatings, as building products within an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, or to represent an option within an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. The extent of information for a material to be qualified, quantified and specified within a project environment will vary from a simple name and description through to detailed technical information.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include default materials provided by the BIM authoring system.


4 Functional requirements

This section describes the functional requirements that can be embedded within the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, to represent behavioural characteristics, constraints and connectivity.

4.1 General

4.1.1 Behaviour

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall be modelled so that its use and functional behaviour:

a) Reflects its relationship with associated objects within the BIM authoring system.

An object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall reflect its real world relationship with associated objects. i.e. a door or a window will generally be related to a wall.

b) Does not compromise the performance of the project model in which it is placed.

While object functionality can greatly aid the designer, this should not be to the detriment of the performance of the model when used within the project environment.

c) Is not reliant upon another object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object, unless placement on another object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is a specific requirement of the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739).

Careful consideration must be given to the use of a host, as this could potentially limit the objects use in the project environment. For example, a wall-based light fixture may also be used on a column. Where possible it is preferable to not be too restrictive when defining the requirements for a host object. For example, if the object can be assigned as surface (or face) mounted, rather than being specifically, wall mounted or column mounted or ceiling mounted, this will provide more flexibility on how the object can be used.

4.1.2 Constraints

Constraints are useful in that they can limit selection criteria to those variations that are possible and available in the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). Where a manufacturer states restrictions to certain criteria of the proprietary product, then these should, if appropriate, be built into the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object. An example of this would be if a door manufacturer has a limitation on the size of the door they can produce: this should be built into the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object where the BIM authoring system will allow.

A constraint can be a ‘Geometric constraint’, whereby geometric properties are limited and controlled, e.g. a dimension can be constrained by fixed length or by range, or two lines can be constrained to be parallel. A constraint can also be an ‘Information constraint’, whereby non-graphical properties are limited, e.g. a product value can only be ‘red’.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may include constraints that limit selection criteria to those variants or accessories that are available in the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739). Constraints shall not have a detrimental effect or confuse the object’s use.

4.1.3 Associated objects

In an object-oriented world, objects have a relationship with other objects around them. Connections and associations, for example a WC object with connections to services, greatly aids the designer when it comes to analysis. Where possible collaborate with the consultant team in developing content that suits both parties to eliminate duplication of content in models.

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object shall be modelled so that it can be associated and connected with other objects where the association is appropriate to the project model and its analysis.

5 Metadata requirements

This section defines metadata data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information. Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields. (SOURCE BS 1192) requirements for BIM objects. The scope of this section includes naming conventions for files, properties, materials, values and images.

5.1 Naming conventions

5.1.1 Spelling

A consistent approach to spelling is important when it comes to scheduling of information in a consistent manner. For example, for COBie properties use the North American spelling, i.e. Color and Labor.

Properties shall be named using the spelling approach taken by the parent resource of those properties, e.g. this standard uses the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) as the default spelling guide, IFC uses North American English.

5.1.2 Composition

Naming conventions should be intuitive so that information can be found and retrieved. Spaces and punctuation are not helpful in the digital era and the use of special characters may mean different things and commands in in different software packages. A big difference from traditional CAD is that naming is visible from within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object and the project model. This offers the ability to provide search functionally and interactions with other databases.

Compliance check

Does the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object property name comprise A-Z, a-z, 0-9 characters only?

correct

ManufacturerURL

incorrect

Manufacturer'sURL

 

Unique names composed of PascalCase alphanumeric characters (e.g. a-z, A-Z, 0-9) shall be used. Names shall be limited to a maximum of 50 characters.

5.1.3 Abbreviations

Values should avoid unnecessary abbreviations as they can lead to errors due to interpretation. However, due to character limitations within certain BIM authoring systems, abbreviations may be required.

Abbreviations should be common to relevant local industry standards. The BIP 2007 Guide to BS 1192, Appendix G gives examples of commonly used abbreviations.

Compliance check

Are abbreviated words of 7 characters or less? Are they an aid to readability?

correct

Abbreviation

Definition

BRK

Brick

CURTN

Curtain

SHTNG

Sheeting

SIPS

Structurally​Insulated​Panels

THRMSTC

Thermostatic

incorrect

Abbreviation

Definition

Bed

Bed

Br

Bar

Extpolne

Extruded​Polystyrene

 

Where the BIM authoring system has file name character limitations, the values within the file naming fields can be abbreviated. An abbreviation can be created using no more than 7 characters, using upper-case lettering without full stops and spaces. Use the same abbreviation for its singular or plural contexts.

5.2 BIM object file naming

5.2.1 General

It is important that the BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object file name is unique, not only to avoid duplication of information but also to aid the export of information and its interpretation.

In a naming field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) the underscore character (_) shall be used as a delimiter. PascalCase shall be used for information within each field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192). Do not use spaces or any other punctuation.

5.2.2 Name composition

The file name composition detailed in this clause was agreed upon by each of the founding regions of the Inetrnational BIM object standard. However, each region recognised that additional fields may also be required within the file name and these additional fields are detailed in clause 5.2.3. How these additional fields are arranged within the file name varies with local industry practice.

Which additional fields are relevant to objects being created in accordance with the AU National Annex and how they are arranged within the file name composition are detailed in clause AU.2.

The file name shall be composed of the fields defined in Table 14 and ordered as follows:

<Type>_<Subtype>_<Differentiator>

Table 14 — File naming fields

Field

Description

Example

Type

Used to identify the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object type or material type.

Window

Subtype

Used to identify the predefined (Sub)type

Skylight

Differentiator (Optional)

Used to convey additional information required to adequately identify the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

600x900

 

NOTE: Manufacturer objects shall also include the <Source> and <Product/Range identifier> fields from Table 15, arranged in line with recognised local industry practice

5.2.3 Additional fields

It is recognised that additional fields will be required to create a file name which can sufficiently and uniquely identify the object. How these additional fields are arranged within the file name varies with local industry practice.

Which additional fields are relevant to objects being created in accordance with the AU National Annex and how they are arranged within the file name composition are detailed in clause AU.2.

The file name may include any of the additional fields defined in Table 15 and arranged in line with recognised local industry practice.

Table 15— Additional file naming fields

Field

Description

Example

Classification

Used to identify the classification code of the primary component within the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

4511

Originator

Used to convey the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object provider by a 3-6 character code. Where an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is provided through an object library but developed by another party, include a code to convey the library provider.

NSWPH

Product/Range identifier

Used to convey the product code or range name used by the manufacturer to identify the product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) (or product physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project Note 1: It is specialization of the general term object. (SOURCE: ISO 16739) range).

T523

Source

Used to identify the product manufacturer.

BettaWindows

5.3 Naming of materials

5.3.1 Material name composition

It is important that the material name is unique, not only to avoid duplication of information but also to aid the export of information and its interpretation.

The material name composition detailed in this clause was agreed upon by each of the founding regions of the Inetrnational BIM object standard. However, each region recognised that additional fields may also be required within the name and these additional fields are detailed in clause 5.2.3. How these additional fields are arranged within the name varies with local industry practice.

Which additional fields are relevant to objects being created in accordance with the AU National Annex and how they are arranged within the material name composition are detailed in clause AU.2.

The material name shall be composed of the fields described in Table 14 and ordered as follows:

<Type>_<Subtype>_<Differentiator>

5.3.2 Additional fields

It is recognised that additional fields may be required to create a material name which can sufficiently and uniquely identify the material. How these additional fields are arranged within the name varies with local industry practice.

Which additional fields are relevant to objects being created in accordance with the AU National Annex and how they are arranged within the material name composition are detailed in clause AU.2.

The material name may include any of the additional fields in Table 15 that are organised in line with recognised local industry practice.

5.3.3 Material image file name

Having the material image name the same as the material name will aid use. The file extension (i.e. .jpg, .bmp, etc.) will identify that the file type is an image file.

The material image file shall be named the same as the material name (see Clause 5.3.1), with a .bmp or .jpg file format extension to identify the file as an image file.

5.4 Image tiling

5.4.1 Image shape

Where the material image file is to be repeated, it shall be either square or rectangular to allow the image to be repeated and tiled with no overlaps or gaps (tessellation).

5.4.2 Image quality

The material image file shall have a minimum quality of:

a) 512 x 512 pixels for square images.

b) 512 pixels on its longest side for rectangular images.

c) 150 dpi.

Scope

The purpose of this National annex is not to contradict any of the requirements within the core International BIM object standard but to describe additional requirements and further clarification of requirements.

The scope of this National annex includes further information requirements and clarification of metadata requirements.

AU National annex - Australian requirements

This annex describes additional requirements and further clarification of requirements from the core International BIM object standard, for BIM objects being created for use in Australia. The scope of this section includes further information requirements and clarification of metadata requirements.

AU.1 Information requirements

AU.1.1 Suffix

A suffix to all properties added to a user defined property set may be included. This is to identify where the properties have originated from. A suffix is not required to IFC or COBie properties as doing so would not follow the rules of those schemas.

This would mean that any property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. that does not have a suffix is a property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. that is either a hard coded property or it belongs to an IFC property group, the COBie_ property group or an IBOS_ property group (see clause 2.3).

User created properties added to a User defined property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. set (see the core International BIM object standard, Clause 2.3) may include an alphanumeric 3 – 6 character code, to identify the origin or purpose of the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object.to the end of the property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. name separated by an underscore. e.g. DoorPanelHeight_ANZRS.

Note:            To allow for BIM authoring system’s that do not display properties in a named property set, it is recommended to include the suffix to each user created property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object..

AU.1.2 Classification properties

The latest version of the NATSPEC National Classification System can be found at <ahref="http://www.natspec.com.au/resources/national-classification-system">

The latest version of the Omniclass tables can be found atwww.omniclass.org

The BIM object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object may also include any of the classification properties detailed in Table AU1 (see also the core International BIM object standard, Clause 2.9.1). The properties shall be completed with the detailed property generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance. Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product. Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard. Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring systems to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object. requirement and grouped in the IBOS_Classification property set.

Table AU1 — IBOS_Classification

Property name

Property requirement

Value type

Example

NATSPECCode

The appropriate NATSPEC classification code.

Numeric

0454

NATSPECTitle

The appropriate NATSPEC classification title.

Alphanumeric

Overhead doors

NATSPECVersion

The appropriate published version of the NATSPEC classification system.

Alphanumeric

Oct 16

OmniclassTable21Code

The appropriate Omniclass Table 21 Element classification code.

(Uniformat equivalent)

Alphanumeric

21-02 20 50 20

OmniclassTable21Title

The appropriate Omniclass Table 21 Element classification title.

(Uniformat equivalent)

Alphanumeric

Exterior utility doors

OmniclassTable21Version

The appropriate Omniclass Table 21 version.

Alphanumeric

2012-05-16

OmniclassTable22Code

The appropriate Omniclass Table 22 Work Results classification code.

(Masterformat equivalent)

Alphanumeric

22-08 33 23

OmniclassTable22Title

The appropriate Omniclass Table 22 Work Results classification title.

(Masterformat equivalent)

Alphanumeric

Overhead coiling doors

OmniclassTable22Version

The appropriate Omniclass Table 22 version.

Alphanumeric

2012-05-16

OmniclassTable23Code

The appropriate Omniclass Table 23 Products classification code.

Alphanumeric

23-17 11 13 25 11

OmniclassTable23Title

The appropriate Omniclass Table 23 Products classification title.

Alphanumeric

Roller shutter overhead metal doors

OmniclassTable23Version

The appropriate Omniclass Table 23 version.

Alphanumeric

2012-05-16

Note: The BIM authoring system used may include hard coded properties that can be used in place of these properties.

AU.2 Metadata requirements

AU2.1 File and material naming

The <Type> field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) has been located at the start of the name so that when searching for an object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object using a source that sorts the objects alphabetically by file name (e.g. file explorer/directory), all similar type objects will sort and be grouped together. E.g. all sinks, be them generic or proprietary will be grouped together.

The benefits of this approach are clear, as opposed to having an alternative field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) such as <Source> up front, in which case, taking the example of a sink, all generic sinks would be grouped together, however any proprietary sinks would be located in different locations based on the alphabetical order of the Source (Manufacturer’s name).

For the <Source> field it is recommended not to abbreviate the manufacturer’s name where practical.

File names and material names shall be structured as follows and composed using the fields defined in the core International BIM object standard, Tables 14 and 15:

<Type>_<Subtype>_<Source1>_<Product/RangeIdentifier1>_<Differentiator2>

Note 1:        The <Source> and <Product/RangeIdentifier> fields are only required for a manufacturer object typeobject intended to represent an obtainable product, either as a requirement or exemplar or as-built. Note 1: The term manufacturer object is also synonymous with “proprietary object” or “product object”..

Note 2:         Optional field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192), use if required to provide further differentiation when the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object is not sufficiently differentiated by the preceding fields.

AU.2.2 Additional fields

It is recommended to include the <Originator> field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) for objects being included in an object library, so that end users can identify where the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object has originated from.

File names and material names may include the additional property of Originator, defined in the core International BIM object standard, Table 15, structured as follows:

<Type>_<Subtype>_<Source>_< Product/RangeIdentifier>_<Differentiator>_<Originator1>

Note 1:         For objects being created for inclusion in an object library, it is recommended to include the <Originator> field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192).

Note 2:        The additional field  part of a container name reserved for metadata (SOURCE: BS 1192) of <Classification>(see the core International BIM object standard, Table 15) is not required within the file or material name for BIM objects being created for use in Australia, as the object item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall objectitself contains properties to assign classification.

Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

assembly

collection of objects combined into a group to be used as one object.

EXAMPLE: An accessible toilet may be an assembled group of the following objects: toilet, handrails, cubical walls, door.

associative dimensioning

dimension that adjusts to changes in the geometric objects that they measure. Associative dimensioning automatically adjusts the location, orientation, and measurement value of dimensions when the geometric objects associated with them are modified.

BIM authoring system

application used in design for generating data for multiple uses.

EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures.

Construction Operation Building information exchange COBie

A buildingSMART model view definition (MVD) which includes operational information.

Note1: The definition of COBie is maintained by buildingSMART International.

code

Sequence of characters, often a mnemonic, having defined meaning when interpreted in the context of the field in which it is entered, used to concisely convey metadata.

mnemonic, having defined meaning when interpreted in the context of the field in which it is entered, used to concisely convey metadata.

(SOURCE: BS 1192)

 

component object

individual object that has unique geometry and does not rely on any other object to be understood.

component

Term used by COBie for a specific instances of each object type common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials. Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications., that may require management such as inspection, maintenance, service or replacement during in ‘in-use’ phase.  Refer to definition of instance.

Note 1: The term component is sometimes referred to as instance, occurrence or element.

constraint

can be:

      a‘Geometric constraint’ whereby geometric properties are limited and controlled e.g a dimension can be constrained by fixed length or by range, or two lines can be constrained to be parallelan‘Information constraint’ whereby non graphical properties are limited, e.g. product value can only be ‘blue’

Note 1: IFC: Restriction for a specified reason

container

named persistent set of data within a file system or application data storage hierarchy including, but not limited to, directory, sub-directory, data file, or district sub-set of a data file, such as a chapter or section, layers or symbol

(SOURCE: BS 1192)

convention

Accepted way of drawing an item which may have the nature of a representation, a simplified representation or a symbol

(SOURCE: BS 8541-2)

enumeration

Construct that allows an attribute value to be one of multiple predefined values identified by name.

(SOURCE: ISO 29481-1)

field

part of a container name reserved for metadata

(SOURCE: BS 1192)

Generic object

Object type intended for use in stages of design when the finalised solution has not yet been completely resolved

Hard coded

Fixed data or property in a BIM authoring system that cannot be altered

IfcBuildingElementProxyType

This defines a list of commonly shared property set definitions of a building element proxy (elements that do not have an IFC PredefinedType) and an optional set of product representations. It is used to define an element specification

EXAMPLE: The specific product information that is common to all occurrences of that product type

IfcElementType

This defines a list of commonly shared property set definitions of an element with an IFC PredefinedType and an optional set of product representations. It is used to define an element specification.

EXAMPLE: The specific product information that is common to all occurrences of that product type

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)

open vendor-independent neutral file format that defines an extendable set of consistent data representing building information for exchange and interoperability between AEC software applications.

Note 1: The IFC specification is developed and maintained by buildingSMART International as its “Data standard”.

Note 2: IFC is registered with ISO as ISO 16739

information device

convention indicating an abstract item

(SOURCE: BS 8541-2)

instance

>occurrence of an entity at a particular location and orientation within a model.  Also referred to as component by COBie (see component for COBie definition).

Note 1: Sometimes referred to as occurrence.

(SOURCE: BS 1192 – Note 1 has been added)

layered object

object typically constructed from a number of layers of materials to form a system, modelled without fixed geometry.

EXAMPLE: Walls, floors, roofs and ceilings

Note 1: A layered object may consist of one layer e.g. waterproof membrane, insulation, metal decking or consist of a number of layers combined to form a multi layered object.

ote 2: A multi layered object is often used where it is more practical to model multiple layers together rather than model each layer individually.

Note 3: The layers can represent specific manufactured products or generic materials.

line types

collection of lines with specific patterns such as dashed, dots and solids.

Note 1: Synonym for “line pattern”

managed assets

assets which will require maintenance, regular inspection and checks and in some cases, replacement parts.

manufacturer object

typeobject intended to represent an obtainable product, either as a requirement or exemplar or as-built

Note 1: The term manufacturer object is also synonymous with “proprietary object” or “product object”.

Material (object)

may carry information regarding identity, performance and appearance. Material may be assigned a specific colour, surface pattern or designated render appearance and specific line work for 2D representation to control the outward appearance of the product or geometrical representation in graphical views.

Note 1: Materials can be used on their own as finishes and coatings, as products within an object, or to represent an option within an object.

>Note 2: The term material is often synonymous with building material, construction material and surface.

metadata

data used for the description and management of documents and other containers of information

Note 1: Each item of metadata resides in a field. Codes are the values allowed for fields.

(SOURCE BS 1192)

object

item having state, behaviour and unique identity – for example, a wall object.

object library

collection of BIM objects to be used on multiple projects.

EXAMPLE 1: Public object library where objects are provided by a library curator for use by the public on their projects

EXAMPLE 2: In-house object library where objects are used by a particular company for use on their projects

EXAMPLE 3: Project object library for use on a particular project

EXAMPLE 4: Client object library for use on a particular client’s projects

parametric geometry

geometry is that is defined and controlled by the metadata (properties) within the object.

PascalCase

Compound words created by concatenating capitalised words.  E.g. PascalCase.  This is different from camelCase as the first letter must be upper case.

PredefinedType

Defines the particular type

product

physical object (manufactured, supplied or created) for incorporating into a project

Note 1:  It is specialization of the general term object.

(SOURCE: ISO 16739)

Project object

an object created for use within a specific project and not intended to be shared with other projects or included in a library.

property

generalisation of all characteristics (either types or partial type, i.e. property sets that may be assigned to objects). Shared among object instances, it reflects the specific information of an object type, but it may also represent the occurrence information of the actual object in the project context, if it is assigned only to a single object instance.

Note 1:  Properties are used to represent technical data and functions for designing, calculating and simulating the product.

>Note 2: The term property is synonymous with parameter and attribute within this standard.

Note 3:  The term parameter is often used by BIM authoring system application used in design for generating data for multiple uses. EXAMPLE: Autodesk® Revit®, Bentley® AECOsim®, Graphisoft® ArchiCAD®, Nemetschek® Vectorworks® and Tekla® Structures. to describe the property information type that has been used to define a BIM object.

property set

collection of properties associated with an object and grouped together based on some principle, e.g. viewpoint, lifecycle stage

representation

scale view of an object.

Note 1: Representation is often also referred to as visibility or display.

Note 2: The terms ‘Low/ symbolic/ simple/ Course, Medium, High/ detailed/ fine/ realistic’ are often used as a substitute for 1:20, 1:50 and 1:100

(SOURCE: BS 8541-2 – Notes 1 and 2 have been added)

type

common characteristics shared by multiple object occurrences. The named specification for equipment, products and materials.

Note 1:  Similar to object class, template, style, category, subcategory, functional type, library part, or subtype in other publications.

schema

data model in a formal machine-readable notation.

Note 1:  IFC specification consists of such a schema and associated informal human-readable semantic definitions. The schema describes a set of data types and their possible relationships.

supplementary geometry

geometric elements included in product definition data to commutate design requirements but not intended to represent a portion of the manufactured product.

(SOURCE: ISO 16792)

symbol

graphical device (without scale) used on a drawing to indicate the occurrence and/or location of an item or in annotation to indicate one or more of the properties of that item.

(SOURCE: BS 8541-2)

system

consists of products defined by technical function, form and/or material

EXAMPLE: Masonry, insulation, blockwork

Note: ISO 16739 describes a system as organised combinations of related parts, composed for a common purpose or function or to provide a service. System is essentially a functionally related aggregation of products.

value

 

information given against a property.

EXAMPLE: Text, Boolean, Length, Look up table, Real, Units, Volume.

variants

form or version that differs in some respect from other forms of the same things or from a standard

Bibliography

The following documents are referred to as the source of a number of terms and definitions included within this document:

BS 1192:2016                    Collaborative production of architectural, engineering and construction information. Code of practice

BS 8541-2:2011                Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Recommended 2D symbols of building elements for use on buildinginformation modelling

ISO 16792:2015                Technical product documentation – Digital product definition data practices

ISO 29481-1:2010           Building information modelling – Information delivery manual – Part 1: Methodology and format